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Linux training

Linux training

Linux is the best-known and most-used open source operating system. As an operating system, Linux is software that sits underneath all of the other software on a computer, receiving requests from those programs and relaying these requests to the computer’s hardware.

 
Module1: HISTORY AND STANDARDS
  • A Brief History of Linux
  • The GNU Project
  • The Linux Kernel
Module2:FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
  • The Core Operating System: The Kernel
  • The Shell
  • Users and Groups
  • Single Directory Hierarchy, Directories, Links, and Files
  • File I/O Model
  • Programs
  • Processes
  • Memory Mappings
  • Static and Shared Libraries
  • Interprocess Communication and Synchronization
  • Signals
  • Threads
  • Process Groups and Shell Job Control
  • Sessions, Controlling Terminals, and Controlling Processes
  • Pseudoterminals
  • Date and Time
  • Client-Server Architecture
  • Realtime
  • The /procFile System
Module 3: SYSTEM PROGRAMMING CONCEPTS
  • System Calls
  • Library Functions
  • The Standard C Library; The GNU C Library (glibc)
  • Handling Errors from System Calls and Library Functions
  • Notes on the Example Programs in This Book
  • Portability Issues
Module 4: FILE I/O: THE UNIVERSAL I/O MODEL
  • File I/O
  • Database Input (Connecting to database)
  • Universality of I/O
  • Opening a File
  • Reading from a File
  • Writing to a File
  • Closing a File
  • Changing the File Offset
  • Operations Outside the Universal I/O Model
Module 5: FILE I/O
  • Atomicity and Race Conditions
  • File Control Operations
  • Open File Status Flags
  • Relationship Between File Descriptors and Open Files
  • Duplicating File Descriptors
  • File I/O at a Specified Offset
  • Scatter-Gather I/O
  • Truncating a File
  • Nonblocking I/O
  • I/O on Large Files
  • The /dev/fd Directory
  • Creating Temporary Files
Module 6: PROCESSES
  • Processes and Programs
  • Process ID and Parent Process ID
  • Memory Layout of a Process
  • Virtual Memory Management
  • The Stack and Stack Frames
  • Command-Line Arguments (argcargv)
  • Environment List
  • Performing a Nonlocal Goto
Module 7: MEMORY ALLOCATION
  • Allocating Memory on the Heap
  • Allocating Memory on the Stack
Module 8: USERS AND GROUPS
  • The Password File
  • The Shadow Password File
  • The Group File
  • Retrieving User and Group Information
  • Password Encryption and User Authentication
Module 9: PROCESS CREDENTIALS
  • Real User ID and Real Group ID
  • Effective User ID and Effective Group ID
  • Set-User-ID and Set-Group-ID Programs
  • Saved Set-User-ID and Saved Set-Group-ID
  • File-System User ID and File-System Group ID
  • Supplementary Group IDs
Module 10: SYSTEM LIMITS AND OPTIONS
  • System Limits
  • Retrieving System Limits (and Options) at Run Time
  • Retrieving File-Related Limits (and Options) at Run Time
  • Indeterminate Limits
  • System Options
Module 11: SYSTEM AND PROCESS INFORMATION
  • The /proc File System
  • System Identification
Module 12: LINUX SYSTEM
Module 13: FILE I/O BUFFERING
  • Kernel Buffering of File I/O: The Buffer Cache
  • Buffering in the stdio Library
  • Controlling Kernel Buffering of File I/O
  • Summary of I/O Buffering
  • Giving the Kernel Hints About I/O Patterns: posix_fadvise()
  • Bypassing the Buffer Cache: Direct I/O
  • Mixing Library Functions and System Calls for File I/O
Module 14: FILE SYSTEMS
  • Device Special Files (Devices)
  • Disks and Partitions
  • File Systems
  • I-nodes
  • The Virtual File System (VFS)
  • Journaling File Systems
  • Single Directory Hierarchy and Mount Points
  • Mounting and Unmounting File Systems
  • Advanced Mount Features
  • A Virtual Memory File System
  • Obtaining Information About a File System
Module 15: FILE ATTRIBUTES
  • Retrieving File Information
  • File Timestamps
  • File Ownership
  • File Permissions
  • I-node Flags
Module 16: DIRECTORIES AND LINKS
  • Directories and (Hard) Links
  • Symbolic (Soft) Links
  • Creating and Removing (Hard) Links
  • Changing the Name of a File
  • Working with Symbolic Links
  • Creating and Removing Directories
  • Removing a File or Directory
  • Reading Directories
  • File Tree Walking
  • The Current Working Directory of a Process
  • Operating Relative to a Directory File Descriptor
  • Changing the Root Directory of a Process
  • Resolving a Pathname
  • Parsing Pathname Strings
Module 17: SIGNALS: FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
  • Concepts
  • Signal Types and Default Actions
  • Changing Signal Dispositions
  • Introduction to Signal Handlers
  • Sending Signals
  • Checking for the Existence of a Process
  • Other Ways of Sending Signals
  • Displaying Signal Descriptions
  • Signal Sets
  • The Signal Mask (Blocking Signal Delivery)
  • Pending Signals
  • Signals Are Not Queued
  • Changing Signal Dispositions
  • Waiting for a Signal
Module 18: PROCESS CREATION
  • Fork()exit()wait(), and execve()
  • Creating a New Process
  • The vfork() System Call
  • Race Conditions After fork()
  • Avoiding Race Conditions by Synchronizing with Signals
Module 19: PROCESS TERMINATION
  • Terminating a Process
  • Details of Process Termination
  • Exit Handlers
  • Interactions Between fork()stdio Buffers, and _exit()
Module 20: PROGRAM EXECUTION
  • Executing a New Program
  • The exec() Library Functions
  • Interpreter Scripts
  • File Descriptors and exec()
  • Signals and exec()
  • Executing a Shell Command
  • Implementing 
Module 21: PROCESS GROUPS, SESSIONS, AND JOB CONTROL
  • Gropus & Sessions
  • Process Groups
  • Sessions
  • Controlling Terminals and Controlling Processes
  • Foreground and Background Process Groups
  • The SIGHUP Signal
  • Job Control
Module 22: DAEMONS
  • Daemons
  • Creating a Daemon
  • Guidelines for Writing Daemons
  • Using SIGHUP to Reinitialize a Daemon
  • Logging Messages and Errors Using syslog
Module 23: LOGIN ACCOUNTING
  • The utmp and wtmp Files
  • The utmpx API
  • The utmpx Structure
  • Retrieving Information from the utmp and wtmp Files
  • Retrieving the Login Name
  • Updating the utmp and wtmp Files for a Login Session
  • The lastlog File
Module 24: FUNDAMENTALS OF SHARED LIBRARIES
  • Object Libraries
  • Static Libraries
  • Overview of Shared Libraries
  • Creating and Using Shared Libraries—A First Pass
  • Useful Tools for Working with Shared Libraries
  • Shared Library Versions and Naming Conventions
  • Installing Shared Libraries
  • Compatible Versus Incompatible Libraries
  • Upgrading Shared Libraries
  • Specifying Library Search Directories in an Object File
  • Finding Shared Libraries at Run Time
  • Run-Time Symbol Resolution
  • Using a Static Library Instead of a Shared Library
Module 25: PIPES AND FIFOS
  • Pipelining
  • Creating and Using Pipes
  • Pipes As a Method of Process Synchronization
  • Using Pipes to Connect Filters
  • Talking to a Shell Command via a Pipe
  • Pipes and stdio Buffering
  • FIFOs
  • A Client-Server Application Using FIFOs
  • Nonblocking I/O
  • Semantics of read() and write() on Pipes and FIFOs
Module 26: MEMORY MAPPINGS
  • Mapping
  • Creating a Mapping
  • Unmapping a Mapped Region
  • File Mappings
  • Synchronizing a Mapped Region
  • Additional mmap() Flags
  • Anonymous Mappings
  • Remapping a Mapped Region
  • The MAP_NORESERVE Flag and Swap Space Overcommitting
  • The MAP_FIXED Flag
  • Nonlinear Mappings
Module 27: VIRTUAL MEMORY OPERATIONS
  • Changing Memory Protection
  • Memory Locking
  • Determining Memory Residence
  • Advising Future Memory Usage Patterns
Module 28: FILE LOCKING
  • Locking
  • File Locking with flock()
  • Record Locking with fcntl()
  • Mandatory Locking
  • The /proc/locks File
  • Running Just One Instance of a Program
  • Older Locking Techniques
Module 29: SOCKETS: INTRODUCTION
  • Socket
  • Creating a Socket
  • Binding a Socket to an Address
  • Generic Socket Address Structures
  • Stream Sockets
  • Datagram Sockets
Module 30: TERMINALS
  • Terminal attributes
  • Retrieving and Modifying Terminal Attributes
  • The stty Command
  • Terminal Special Characters
  • Terminal Flags
  • Terminal I/O Modes
  • Terminal Line Speed (Bit Rate)
  • Terminal Line Control
  • Terminal Window Size
  • Terminal Identification
Module 31: ALTERNATIVE I/O MODELS
  • I/O
  • I/O Multiplexing
  • Signal-Driven I/O
  • The epoll API
  • Waiting on Signals and File Descriptors
Module 32: PSEUDO TERMINALS
  • Other Terminals
  • UNIX 98 Pseudoterminals
  • Opening a Pseudoterminal Master
  • Connecting Two Processes with a Pseudoterminal
  • Pseudoterminal I/O
  • Implementing
  • Terminal Attributes and Window Size